DATOS Home Page

DATOS Home >

Special Collections




  1-Year Outcomes
  History Effects
  Cocaine Treatment
  Cost Benefits
  5-Yr Outcomes

  1-Yr Outcomes
  Special Populations

  Listed by Year
  Listed by Topics

  Special Collections




Methods and 1-Year Outcomes
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors (1997)   

Simpson, D. D., & Curry, S. J. (Eds.). (1997).  Special Issue: Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS).  Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 11(4), 211-335.

1)  Leshner, A. I. (1997).  Introduction to the special issue: the National Institute on Drug Abuse’s (NIDA’s) Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS). Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 11(4), 211-215.

2)  Fletcher, B. W., Tims, F. M., & Brown, B. S. (1997).  The Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS):  Treatment evaluation research in the United States. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 11(4), 216-229.

Abstract:  Much of what is known about typical drug abuse treatment outcomes comes from a series of large-scale national prospective longitudinal treatment evaluation studies supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse over the past 3 decades.  An overview of the historical context, research design, and findings from the Drug Abuse Reporting Program (DARP) and the Treatment Outcome Prospective Study (TOPS) is presented.  The Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS), a multisite cooperative agreement, is the latest and most advanced in this research designed to understand drug abuse treatment.  DATOS investigators are conducting analyses in 4 thematic areas: health services research, retention and engagement in treatment, the life course of treated addicts, and policy-relevant treatment outcome studies.

3)  Flynn, P. M., Craddock, S. G., Hubbard, R. L., Anderson, J., & Etheridge, R. M. (1997). Methodological overview and research design for the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS). Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 11(4), 230-243.

Abstract:  The Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS) is the 3rd in a series of national multisite studies of community-based treatment sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse.  The major goal of this prospective cohort study of adult clients entering treatment from 1991 to 1993 is to evaluate treatment effectiveness.  The study included 10,010 admissions from 96 programs in II cities. Interviews were conducted at admission and during treatment, and 2,966 selected participants completed a 12-month follow-up interview.  This article describes the methodological aspects of the study and provides an overview of program and client samples.  Data collection procedures and instrumentation are described, and the analytical approach used to attain the research objectives is presented.  Future plans for a longer term follow-up are also described, along with the potential contributions of DATOS findings to treatment policy.

4)  Etheridge, R. M., Hubbard, R. L., Anderson, J., Craddock, S. G., & Flynn, P. M. (1997).  Treatment structure and program services in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS). Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 11(4), 244-260.

Abstract:  Program and client data from the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS) were used to examine program structural and treatment characteristics in 1991-1993.  Similar data from the Treatment Outcome Prospective Study were used to compare the characteristics of DATOS programs with those in 1979-1981.  Drug abuse treatment typically consisted of supportive therapy delivered primarily in groups, emphasizing abstinence from all illicit substances, including alcohol, buttressed by relapse prevention and urine monitoring during treatment.  Secondary treatment emphases reflected each modality's unique orientations.  Over the 2 eras, comprehensive services declined while many core elements of treatment strengthened, including client awareness of treatment plans and posttreatment involvement in 12-step groups.  Some programs began to experience structural changes resulting from cost containment and managed care.

5)  Hubbard, R. L., Craddock, S. G., Flynn, P. M., Anderson, J., & Etheridge, R. M. (1997).  Overview of 1-year follow-up outcomes in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS).  Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 11(4), 261-278.

Abstract:  The Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS) collected 1-year follow-up outcomes for 2,966 clients in outpatient methadone (OMT), long-term residential (LTR), outpatient drug-free (ODF), and short-term inpatient (STI) programs in 1991-1993. LTR, STI, and ODF clients reported 50% less weekly or daily cocaine use in the follow-up year than in the preadmission year.  Reductions were greater (p < .01) for clients treated for 3 months or more. Clients still in OMT reported less weekly or daily heroin use than clients who left OMT.  Multivariate analysis confirmed that 6 months or more in ODF and LTR and enrollment in OMT were associated with the reductions.  Reductions of 50% in illegal activity and 10% increases in full-time employment for LTR clients were related (p < .01) to treatment stays of 6 months or longer.  The results replicated findings from 1979-1981 for heroin use in OMT and illegal activity and employment for LTR but not for illegal activity in OMT and ODF.

6)  Simpson, D. D., Joe, G. W., Broome, K. M., Hiller, M. L., Knight, K., & Rowan-Szal, G. A. (1997).  Program diversity and treatment retention rates in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS). Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 11(4), 279-293.

Abstract:  Stays of 3 months or longer in drug abuse treatment generally predict better follow-up outcomes.  In a national sample of community-based programs that participated in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study, median lengths of stay were 3 months for clients in long-term residential and outpatient drug-free treatments and 1 year for clients in outpatient methadone treatment.  However, individual programs within each of these modalities differed widely in how long they kept their clients in treatment as well as their service delivery.  Programs treating individuals with heavier cocaine and alcohol use and more psychological dysfunction usually had shorter retention rates.  Nonetheless, even after statistically controlling for these client differences, some programs were more effective than others in engaging and retaining clients.

7)  Simpson, D. D., Brown, B. S., & Joe, G. W. (1997).  Treatment retention and follow-up outcomes in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS).   Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 11(4), 294-307.

Abstract:  Clients in the national Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study reported significant overall improvements in drug use and related measures during a 12-month follow-up period.  A quasi-experimental design was used to examine the relationship of treatment duration with outcomes in each of the 3 major modalities represented.  Client subsamples with longer retention in long-term residential programs and in outpatient methadone treatment had significantly better outcomes than those with shorter lengths of stay (results were inconclusive for outpatient drug-free programs because of sample limitations).  This study used several methodological enhancements and showed general continuity of findings on retention effects from previous national evaluations of treatment effectiveness.  It supports the need for more careful study of treatment process in relation to outcomes.

8)  Anglin, M. D., Hser, Y. I., & Grella, C. E. (1997).  Drug addiction and treatment careers among clients in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS). Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 11(4), 308-323.

Abstract:  Considerable heterogeneity in patterns of addiction and treatment career histories was observed among the 10,010 clients participating in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS).  For half of the clients, DATOS was their first treatment episode; for the other half, their mean number of prior treatment episodes was 3.5.  Type of treatment and cumulative length of treatment exposure reflected the interaction of clients’ drug use patterns and the historical availability of different treatment approaches.  Regression analyses showed that a higher level of prior treatment use was associated with more severe addiction career characteristics, injection drug use, and criminal activities.  Effective and cost-effective approaches to treatment need to include more strategic interventions that consider clients’ diverse treatment histories.

9)  Gossop, M., Marsden, J., Stewart, D., Edwards, C., Lehmann, P., Wilson, A., & Segar, G. (1997).  The National Treatment Outcome Research Study in the United Kingdom: Six-month follow-up outcomes.  Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 11(4), 324-337.

Abstract:  The National Treatment Outcome Research Study (NTORS) is the first prospective, multisite treatment outcome investigation of drug users in the United Kingdom.  The findings of this influential national study are being used by the Department of Health to formulate purchasing guidance.  This article presents data on substance use problems for clients (N = 1,075) in specialist inpatient, rehabilitation, methadone maintenance, and methadone reduction modalities.  The most frequent problem was heroin addiction with associated polydrug use problems.  There were differences between modalities in substance use at intake.  Clients in residential modalities were older, were more likely to use cocaine and alcohol in addition to opiates, had longer drug careers, and had more previous treatment contact.  Substantial improvements in a range of substance use problems were observed at 6-month follow-up among clients in all treatment modalities.

Return to Top


  Publications listed
by year:

2004 2005 2006
2003 2002  2001
2000 1999 1998
1997 1996 1995
Publications listed
by topics:
A. Outcome Overviews
B. Methods & Design
C. Services & Utilization
  1. Client descriptions
  2. Treatment services
  3. Support systems
D. Engagement & Retention
  1. Engagement
  2. Retention
E. Addiction & Treatment History
  1. Outcome patterns
  2. Career patterns
F. Special Populations & Issues
  1. Gender & ethnicity
  2. HIV risks
  3. Criminal behavior
  4. Co-morbidity
G. 5-Year Outcomes
H. Adolescents
I. Policy Issues
Special collections of
DATOS publications:
  Methods and 1-Year Outcomes
   (1997 in PAB)
•  Treatment Process, Engagement,
   and Retention
   (1999 in DAD)
•  Adolescent Treatment Outcomes
   (2001 in JAR)
•  5-year Outcomes and
   Recovery Patterns
   (2003 in JSAT)


Last Revised:
September 24, 2007

Site Comments:
Contact Webmaster

Contents     Search

Research Centers

DATOS Home | About DATOS | Background |
Research Findings:  Adults;  Adolescents |
PublicationsListed by Year;  Listed by Topics; Special Collections |  
Presentations | What’s New