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Overview and Research Design for Adolescents in the Drug Abuse Treatment
Outcome Studies (DATOS-A)
A total of 3,382 adolescent patients admitted to short-term inpatient/chemical
dependency, therapeutic communities/residential, or outpatient drug-free
programs across six cities (Chicago, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, Pittsburgh,
Portland) were interviewed between November 1993 and November 1995, and
followed during and after treatment (Kristiansen
& Hubbard, 2001).
- Intake Sample: Overall, this
treatment sample was 74% male; 24% African American; and 21% Hispanic,
with a mean age between 15 and 16 years and 9 years of education. Over
half had some juvenile or criminal justice status at admission, two-thirds
had no prior drug treatment experience, and the predominant drug-use
patterns included weekly or daily use of marijuana alone or combined
- Follow-up Analysis Sample: The
analytic sample consists of 1,553 of the eligible adolescents from 4
cities (Chicago, Minneapolis, Pittsburgh, Portland) who completed the
two-stage intake interviews. Of these, 81.7% (n=1,269) were located,
including 75% (n=1,167) who were successfully interviewed, .5% (n=8)
who were deceased, and 6% (n=94) who refused to participate.
Repeated measures methodology was used, combining
detailed levels of measurement. Data collection forms included sets of
standardized instruments recommended by clinical experts.
- Intake 1 and Intake 2 were conducted
by trained interviewers (approximately 1 week apart) and covered 9 domains
(demographic characteristics; employment status, work history, and income;
criminal justice status; living situation, and child custody status;
mental health, and psychiatric diagnosis; medical and health-related
data; level of drug and alcohol use before treatment; primary drug use
and patterns of dependence; and HIV risk behaviors).
- During-Treatment Interviews were
completed at 1 month after admission, and again at 3 and 6 months. Questions
were included about service delivery and client satisfaction.
- Follow-up Interviews were administered
at 12 months after treatment termination. They replicated much of the
Intake interviews and focused on key behaviors during the year before
the follow-up interview.
- Treatment Process Questionnaires
were sent to counselors and program directors. A total of 33 of the
37 programs (89%) returned completed questionnaires. Questions were
asked about program and treatment structure, philosophy, available services,
policy, staffing, treatment planning, and aftercare. Program directors
were asked about program organization and financing.
- Specially trained and supervised interviewers
were hired to carry out Intake and During-Treatment data collection
in order to assure that programs were not inconvenienced by the research.
Trained professional survey interviewers conducted follow-up surveys
in the community. Quality control procedures were in place for each
step of data management, data editing and entry, and document control.
- Clients were compensated $10 for
each Intake and During-Treatment interview, and $15 for a Follow-up
Treatment Modalities Represented
- Residential, Therapeutic Community
(RES) programs included traditional, modified, and short-term therapeutic
communities, as well as halfway houses and shelters. They all required
patients to live in the treatment setting and included traditional treatment
interventions along with those designed to resocialize patients. Planned
duration of stay was much shorter than the long-term residential treatment
for adults, initially varying from 3 months to 1 year (median 5 months)
compared to 4 months to 2 years for adult programs (median 11 months).
- Outpatient Drug-Free (ODF) programs
provided regular and intensive outpatient and day-treatment, but they
varied in terms of the range of services offered and the duration and
frequency of treatment sessions. Planned duration of stay varied from
1 month to 2 years.
- Short-Term Inpatient (STI) programs
provided such treatment interventions as individual, group, and family
counseling, as well as 12-step counseling. Planned duration of stay
was no more than 35 days, but often the actual duration was fewer than
Kristiansen, P.L., and Hubbard, R.L. (2001).
Methodological overview and research design for adolescents in the Drug
Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS-A). Journal of Adolescent
Research, 16(6), 545-562. [Abstract]
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